[Tutorial]Python

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[Tutorial]Python

Post  Runeselite on Mon Jul 12, 2010 1:43 pm

Python is an easy to learn, powerful programming language. It has
efficient
high-level data structures and a simple but effective approach to
object-oriented programming. Python’s elegant syntax and dynamic typing,
together with its interpreted nature, make it an ideal language for
scripting
and rapid application development in many areas on most platforms.
The Python interpreter and the extensive standard library are freely
available
in source or binary form for all major platforms from the Python Web
site,
http://www.python.org/,
and may be freely distributed. The same site also
contains distributions of and pointers to many free third party Python
modules,
programs and tools, and additional documentation.
The Python interpreter is easily extended with new functions and data
types
implemented in C or C++ (or other languages callable from C). Python is
also
suitable as an extension language for customizable applications.
This tutorial introduces the reader informally to the basic concepts
and
features of the Python language and system. It helps to have a Python
interpreter handy for hands-on experience, but all examples are
self-contained,
so the tutorial can be read off-line as well.
For a description of standard objects and modules, see The
Python Standard Library
.
The
Python Language Reference
gives a more formal definition of
the language. To write
extensions in C or C++, read Extending
and Embedding the Python Interpreter
and
Python/C
API Reference Manual
. There are also several books covering
Python in depth.
This tutorial does not attempt to be comprehensive and cover every
single
feature, or even every commonly used feature. Instead, it introduces
many of
Python’s most noteworthy features, and will give you a good idea of the
language’s flavor and style. After reading it, you will be able to read
and
write Python modules and programs, and you will be ready to learn more
about the
various Python library modules described in The
Python Standard Library
.
The Glossary
is also worth going through.

  • 1. Whetting Your
    Appetite
  • 2. Using the
    Python Interpreter

    • 2.1.
      Invoking the Interpreter

      • 2.1.1.
        Argument Passing
      • 2.1.2.
        Interactive Mode

    • 2.2.
      The Interpreter and Its Environment

      • 2.2.1.
        Error Handling
      • 2.2.2.
        Executable Python Scripts
      • 2.2.3.
        Source Code Encoding
      • 2.2.4.
        The Interactive Startup File


  • 3. An Informal
    Introduction to Python

    • 3.1.
      Using Python as a Calculator

      • 3.1.1.
        Numbers
      • 3.1.2.
        Strings
      • 3.1.3.
        Unicode Strings
      • 3.1.4.
        Lists

    • 3.2.
      First Steps Towards Programming

  • 4. More Control
    Flow Tools

    • 4.1.
      if
      Statements
    • 4.2.
      for
      Statements
    • 4.3.
      The range()
      Function
    • 4.4.
      break and continue
      Statements, and else
      Clauses on Loops
    • 4.5.
      pass
      Statements
    • 4.6.
      Defining Functions
    • 4.7.
      More on Defining Functions

      • 4.7.1.
        Default Argument Values
      • 4.7.2.
        Keyword Arguments
      • 4.7.3.
        Arbitrary Argument Lists
      • 4.7.4.
        Unpacking Argument Lists
      • 4.7.5.
        Lambda Forms
      • 4.7.6.
        Documentation Strings

    • 4.8.
      Intermezzo: Coding Style

  • 5. Data
    Structures

    • 5.1.
      More on Lists

      • 5.1.1.
        Using Lists as Stacks
      • 5.1.2.
        Using Lists as Queues
      • 5.1.3.
        Functional Programming Tools
      • 5.1.4.
        List Comprehensions
      • 5.1.5.
        Nested List Comprehensions

    • 5.2.
      The del
      statement
    • 5.3.
      Tuples and Sequences
    • 5.4.
      Sets
    • 5.5.
      Dictionaries
    • 5.6.
      Looping Techniques
    • 5.7.
      More on Conditions
    • 5.8.
      Comparing Sequences and Other Types

  • 6. Modules

    • 6.1.
      More on Modules

      • 6.1.1.
        Executing modules as scripts
      • 6.1.2.
        The Module Search Path
      • 6.1.3.
        “Compiled” Python files

    • 6.2.
      Standard Modules
    • 6.3.
      The dir()
      Function
    • 6.4.
      Packages

      • 6.4.1.
        Importing * From a Package
      • 6.4.2.
        Intra-package References
      • 6.4.3.
        Packages in Multiple Directories


  • 7. Input and
    Output

    • 7.1.
      Fancier Output Formatting

      • 7.1.1.
        Old string formatting

    • 7.2.
      Reading and Writing Files

      • 7.2.1.
        Methods of File Objects
      • 7.2.2.
        The pickle
        Module


  • 8. Errors and
    Exceptions

    • 8.1.
      Syntax Errors
    • 8.2.
      Exceptions
    • 8.3.
      Handling Exceptions
    • 8.4.
      Raising Exceptions
    • 8.5.
      User-defined Exceptions
    • 8.6.
      Defining Clean-up Actions
    • 8.7.
      Predefined Clean-up Actions

  • 9. Classes

    • 9.1.
      A Word About Names and Objects
    • 9.2.
      Python Scopes and Namespaces
    • 9.3.
      A First Look at Classes

      • 9.3.1.
        Class Definition Syntax
      • 9.3.2.
        Class Objects
      • 9.3.3.
        Instance Objects
      • 9.3.4.
        Method Objects

    • 9.4.
      Random Remarks
    • 9.5.
      Inheritance

      • 9.5.1.
        Multiple Inheritance

    • 9.6.
      Private Variables
    • 9.7.
      Odds and Ends
    • 9.8.
      Exceptions Are Classes Too
    • 9.9.
      Iterators
    • 9.10.
      Generators
    • 9.11.
      Generator Expressions

  • 10. Brief Tour of the
    Standard Library

    • 10.1.
      Operating System Interface
    • 10.2.
      File Wildcards
    • 10.3.
      Command Line Arguments
    • 10.4.
      Error Output Redirection and Program Termination
    • 10.5.
      String Pattern Matching
    • 10.6.
      Mathematics
    • 10.7.
      Internet Access
    • 10.8.
      Dates and Times
    • 10.9.
      Data Compression
    • 10.10.
      Performance Measurement
    • 10.11.
      Quality Control
    • 10.12.
      Batteries Included

  • 11. Brief Tour of
    the Standard Library – Part II

    • 11.1.
      Output Formatting
    • 11.2.
      Templating
    • 11.3.
      Working with Binary Data Record Layouts
    • 11.4.
      Multi-threading
    • 11.5.
      Logging
    • 11.6.
      Weak References
    • 11.7.
      Tools for Working with Lists
    • 11.8.
      Decimal Floating Point Arithmetic

  • 12. What Now?
  • 13. Interactive
    Input Editing and History Substitution

    • 13.1.
      Line Editing
    • 13.2.
      History Substitution
    • 13.3.
      Key Bindings
    • 13.4.
      Alternatives to the Interactive Interpreter

  • 14. Floating
    Point Arithmetic: Issues and Limitations

    • 14.1.
      Representation Error


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